Imagine you are a smiling Mexican feathered salamander called an axolotl. You have just been born with hundreds of brothers and sisters. But salamanders like you live wild in a lake near Mexico City, and the place isn’t enough for you all. Food is scarce. Only the strongest can survive. What are you doing?
If you are an axolotl, you have two options. Eat your brother’s arm or eat your arm.
However, being a victim of the atrocities of these brothers does not mean that all hope is lost. In a few months, you will have a new arm, as well as bones, muscles, skin and blood vessels.
“It’s quite scary, but cannibalism is one of the reasons they grow their arms,” said associate professor of biology James Monaghan. His lab studies the regeneration of axolotls, a unique species that can grow limbs and other organs to different heights.
Biology expert James Monaghan says axolotls are unique because they can develop organisms at all stages of their life. One day, the same thing could happen to people. Photo: Matthew Modudno/Northeastern University
“When an injury occurs, some of the marks are released by animals that signal the brain near the injury to transition from a resting state to a regenerating state,” Monaghan said.
Its labs are trying to identify what the content is and how it can be obtained in humans with the ability to regenerate. “Humans have a bad reputation for not being able to regenerate properly,” says Monaghan.
He said, “That’s good, because otherwise there will be violence,” he said. Nobody wants to grow more fingers.
“Axolotls can roll back the seeds we were on forever,” Monaghan said. Northeastern scientist Nikolai Slavov has developed a way to identify more than a thousand proteins in a single brain and estimate their richness. Photo by Adam Glanzman/Northeastern University
Scientists’ perceptions of this danger could run deep in terms of drug therapies Understanding the special processes that drive repetitive responses in axolotls is no small task as most of the larger genomes have been tracked today.
To date, the laboratory has identified a molecule called neurregulin-1, which is essential for the development of limbs, lungs and the heart.
“When we took him out he didn’t play. And when we put him back he said the answer,” Monaghan said. “I’m not saying it’s a hot bullet to support reconstruction even in humans, but it could be part of the assembly.”
Many scientists study branch formation in axolotls. However, Monaghan Medical Center needs to expand this research to other organizations.
“When you think of human disease, most of the issues associated with disease have to do with the stomach,” Monaghan said.
An example is retinal regeneration. Monaghan says we can study the process that allows specific axolotl cells to take over brain development and then follow the procedure in the human eye. Or we can find out which of the axolotl compounds allows the cell to behave that way and then add that product to human stem cell repair.
For the final test, Monaghan worked with Northeast Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering Rebecca Carrier and her clinic to determine the best way to replace brain cancer using molecules found in the axolotl.
In their experiment, Monaghan and Carrier used pig’s eye, which resembles the human eye. When stem cells from the retina of one pig were transferred to the retina of another pig, 99% of the tumor cells died. “Something is missing,” Monaghan said. “The cell does not have a good signal.”
However, when Carrier and Monaghan injected the same stem cells into the axolotl’s eye, fewer cells died. “They were happier,” Monaghan said, “there’s something about the axolotl retina that mammalian cells love.”
An unusual salamander from Mexico, the axolotl can regenerate without scarring its legs, body, and even its eyes. Photo by Matthew Modoono/Northeastern University
This salamander can develop its limbs like Deadpool. Can you tell us to do the same? Read more
One of the reasons the axolotl is beneficial is that it lacks immunity, unlike humans.
“It’s very easy to mutate in animals, because axolotls can’t tell new tissue isn’t their own,” he said. “They refuse to recognize it like we do.”
A clear example of this can be seen in the axolotl’s genetic mutations with the green fluorescent protein found in jellyfish. Natural white axolotls glow neon green in special lighting.
“It allows us to ask simple questions, like changing the fate of cells when involved in reconstruction.” monagan says: For example, when Monaghan converts the muscle from fluorescent green to white into a white axolotl and the axolotl regenerates, will the axolotl turn green? Are the bones bright green? What happens to your skin?
But scientists have discovered that the brain does not change. Greens only produce greens. The axolotl is not the only animal capable of regenerating bacteria. Starfish, worms, frogs and other species of salamanders can breed. However, the axolotl is unique because, unlike other species, it can regenerate its original immune system at any age. If you are looking to buy an adorable axolotl for sale then you can easily get from trusted breed provider.
Tadpoles, for example, can form branches. But when they go through metamorphosis and become frogs, “they can only regrow spikes,” says Monaghan. “They lost the ability to add more numbers.”
Axolotl’s ability to treat all illnesses as he ages may be due in part to his early childhood. Axolotls, unlike most other amphibians, do not cause metamorphosis. That is to say, they can be regenerated but technically do not reach adults. This condition is called neoteny.
Professor H. William Detrich of Northeastern University shows that hybrid icefish can.
“Axolotls come from a ground-walking type,” Monaghan said. After all, there are legs. “However, certain changes occurred that kept them in the lake and prevented them from aging.”
To test whether their condition was responsible for their ability to regenerate, Monaghan took a group of axolotl parents and induced partial metamorphosis by exposing their thyroid hormones, a chemical swap mutation in amphibians. The other half are still children.
In the experiment, the young regenerate normally, but the older siblings all regenerate more slowly than usual and show limb deformities.
“It has to do with neoteny and the ability to regenerate,” Monaghan said. “But that’s not important.”
The main meaning is not yet found. But at some point it might seem like fake science, “You’ve already built an arm once,” Monaghan said. “If we can learn to reactivate the program, our body can do better.”